2019   Baraban, M., Retamal, M. A., Ortiz, F. C. Editorial: Physiology of Myelin Forming Cells, From Myelination to Neural Modulators, Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2019.00475

2019   Escudero, C. A., Cabeza, C., Moya-Alvarado, G., Maloney, M. T., Flores, C. M., Wu, C., Court, F. A., Mobley, W. C., Bronfman, F. C. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent internalization and Rab5-dependent endocytic sorting mediate long-distance retrograde neuronal death induced by axonal BDNF-p75 signaling. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-42420-6

2019   Retamal, M. A., Orellana, V. P., Arevalo, N. J., Rojas, C. G., Arjona, R. J., Alcaino, C. A., Gonzalez, W., Canan, J. G., Moraga-Amaro, R., Stehberg, J., Reuss, L., Altenberg, G. A. Cx46 hemichannel modulation by nitric oxide: Role of the fourth transmembrane helix cysteine and its possible involvement in cataract formation. NITRIC OXIDE-BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, DOI: 10.1016/j.niox.2019.02.007

2019   Vejar, S., Oyarzún, J. E., Retamal, M. A., Ortiz, F. C., Orellana, J. A. Connexin and pannexin-based channels in oligodendrocytes: implications in brain health and disease. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2019.00003

2019   Vera, N., Acuna-Gallardo, S., Grunenwald, F., Caceres-Verschae, A., Realini, O., Acuna, R., Lladser, A., Illanes, S. E., Varas-Godoy, M. Small Extracellular Vesicles Released from Ovarian Cancer Spheroids in Response to Cisplatin Promote the Pro-Tumorigenic Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, DOI: 10.3390/ijms20204972

2018   Diaz, Mario; Retamal, Mauricio A. Editorial: Modulation of Ion Channels and Ionic Pumps by Fatty Acids: Implications in Physiology and Pathology. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY. Doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01625

2018   Verónica Abudara, Mauricio A. Retamal, Rodrigo del Rio, Juan A. Orellana. Synaptic functions of hemichannels: A double-edged sword. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. Doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2018.00435

2018  Andrade D.C., Iturriaga R., Toledo C., Lucero C.M., Díaz H.S., Arce-Álvarez A., Retamal M.A., Marcus N.J., Alcayaga J., Del Rio R., Topical Application of Connexin43 Hemichannel Blocker Reduces Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive in Rats. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-91137-3_7

2018   Riveros, Maria E.; Retamal, Mauricio A. Are Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Implicated in Histaminergic Dysregulation in Bipolar Disorder?: AN HYPOTHESIS. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY. Doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00693

2018   García I.E., Sánchez H.A., Martínez A.D., Retamal M.A., Redox-mediated regulation of connexin proteins; focus on nitric oxide. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Biomembranes. Doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.10.006

2017 Retamal M.A., Riquelme M.A., Stehberg J., Alcayaga J., Connexin43 hemichannels in satellite glial cells, can they influence sensory neuron activity?. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2017.00374

2017  Torrealba F., Madrid C., Contreras M., Gómez K., Plasticity in the interoceptive system, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Oct2017, DOI10.1007/978-3-319-62817-2_4

2017 García IE, Sánchez HA, Martínez AD, Retamal MA. Redox-mediated regulation of connexin proteins; focus on nitric oxide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Oct 7. pii: S0005-2736(17)30316-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2017.10.006.

2017 Toledo C, Andrade DC, Lucero C, Schultz HD, Marcus NJ, Retamal MAMadrid C, Del Rio R. Contribution of peripheral and central chemoreceptors to sympatho-excitation in heart failure. J Physiol 595 (1): 43-51.

2017    Puebla C, Retamal MAAcuña R, Sáez JC. Regulation of connexin-based channels by fatty acids. Front Physiol 8: 11.

2016    Dalamon V, Fiori MC, Figueroa VA, Oliva CA, del Río R, González W, Canan J, Elgoyhen AB, Altenberg GA, Retamal MA. Gap-junctional channel and hemichannel activity in two recently identified connexin 26 mutants associated with deafness. Pflügers Arch 468 (5): 909-918.

2016    Retamal MA, García IE, Pinto B, Pupo A, Baez-Nieto D, Stehberg J, Del Rio R, Gonzalez C. Extracellular cysteine in connexins: role as redox sensors. Front Physiol 7: 1.

2016    García IE., Prado P, Pupo A, Jara O, Rojas-Gómez D, Mujica P, Flores-Muñoz C, González-Casanova J, Soto-Riveros C, Retamal MA, González C, Martínez AD. Connexinopathies: a structural and functional glimpse. BMC Cell Biol 17 (suppl 1): 17.

2016    Pogoda K, Kameritsch P, Retamal MA, Vega JL. Regulation of gap junction channels and hemichannels by phosphorylation and redox changes, a revision. BMC Cell Biol 17 (suppl 1): 11.

2016    Pinto BI, Garcia IE., Pupo A, Retamal MA, Martinez AD., Latorre R, Gonzalez C. Charged residues at the first transmembrane region contribute to the voltage dependence of thye slow gate of connexins. J Biol Chem 291 (30): 15740-15752

2016    Orellana JA, Retamal MA, Moraga-Amaro R, Stehberg J. Role of astroglial hemichannels and pannexons in memory and neurodegenerative diseases. Front Integr Neurosci 10:26

2016    Calderón JF, Retamal MARegulation of connexins expression levels by microRNAs, an update. Front Physiol 7: 558.

2016    Retamal MA. Carbon monoxide modulates connexin function through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process: A hypothesis. Front Physiol 7: 259

2016    Retamal MA, Bennett MV, Pelegrin P, Fernandez R. Ion channels in inflammatory processes: What is known and what is next? Mediators Inflamm 2016: 6245731

2016    Casanova JP, Madrid C, Contreras M, Rodríguez M, Vasquez M, Torrealba F. A role for the interoceptive insular cortex in the consolidation of learned fear. Behav Brain Res 296: 70-77

2016    Valdés JL, Contreras M, Riveros ME, Perdomo G, Torrealba F. The histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus is involved in appetite for sex, water and amphetamine. Plos One 11 (2): e0148484

2016    Cerpa V, Wu Y, Bravo E, Teran FA, Flynn RS, Richerson GB. Medullary 5-HT neurons: Switch from tonic respiratory drive to chemoreception during postnatal development. Neuroscience pii: S0306-4522(16)30440-7.

2016    Reyes EP, Cortes PP, Fernandez R. Animal models for sepsis research. SMGroup eBooks, 9 pp.

2016    Gysling K, Corvalán L, Fuentealba JA. “El Cerebro Adicto. Por qué abusamos de las drogas, el alcohol, la nicotina y muchas cosas más.”. Ediciones UC, Santiago, Chile, 247 págs. Traducción al castellano del libro “The Addicted Brain. Why We Abuse Drugs, Alcohol, and Nicotine”, by Michael Kuhar, 2011.

2016    Casanova JP, Madrid C, Contreras M, Rodríguez M, Vasquez M, Torrealba F. A role for the interoceptive insular cortex in the consolidation of learned fear. Behav Brain Res 296: 70-77

2016    Dalamon V, Fiori MC, Figueroa VAOliva CA, del Rio R, Gonzalez W, Canan J, Elgoyhen AB, Altenberg GA, Retamal MAGap-junctional channel and hemichannel activity of two recently-identified connexin 26 mutants associated with deafness. Pflügers Arch, online, in press

2016    Retamal MA, García IE, Pinto B, Pupo A, Baez-Nieto D, Stehberg J, Del Rio R, Gonzalez C. Extracellular cysteine in connexins: role as redox sensors. Front Physiol 7: 1. In press

2016    Valdes JL, Contreras M, Riveros ME, Perdomo G, Torrealba F. The histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus is involved in appetite for sex, water and amphetamine. Plos One PONE-D-15-00780R1.

2015    Nardocci G, Martin A, Abarzúa S, Rodríguez J, Simón F, Reyes EP, Acuña-Castillo C, Navarro C, Cortés PP, Fernández R. Sepsis progression to multiple organ dysfunction in carotid chemo/barodenervated rats treated with lipopolysaccharide. J Neuroimmunol 278: 44-52

2015    Fernández R, Cortés P, Del Rio R, Acuña-Castillo C, Reyes EP. Lipopolysaccharide-induced ionized hypocalcemia and acute kidney injury in carotid chemo/baro-denervated rats. Adv Exp Med Biol 860: 161-166

2015    Fiori MC, Krishnan S, Cortes DM, Retamal MA, Reuss L, Altenberg GA, Cuello LG. Functional hemichannels formed by human connexin 26 expressed in bacteria». Biosci Reports 18: 35(2)

2015    Retamal MALeón-Paravic CG, Ezquer M, Ezquer F, Del Rio R, Pupo A, Martínez AD, González C. Carbon monoxide: A new player in the redox regulation of connexin hemichannels. IUBMB Life 67(6): 428-437

2015    Retamal MAReyes EP, García IE, Pinto B, Martínez AD, González C. Diseases associated with leaky hemichannels. Front Cell Neurosci 9: 267

2015    Del Rio R, Quintanilla RA, Orellana JA, Retamal MA. Neuron-glia crosstalk in the autonomic nervous system and its possible role in the progression of metabolic syndrome: A new hypothesis. Front Physiol 6: 350. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00350

2015    Cerpa VJ, Aylwin M de L, Beltrán-Castillo S, Bravo EU, Llona IR, Richerson GB, Eugenín JL. The alteration of neonatal raphe neurons by prenatal-perinatal nicotine. Meaning for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 53 (4): 489-499

2015    Andrade DC, Lucero C, Toledo C, Madrid C, Marcus NJ, Schultz HD, Del Rio R. Relevance of the carotid body chemoreflex in the progression of heart failure. Review. Biomed Res Intl, E-pub Dec 8.

2014    Retamal MA. Connexin and pannexin hemichannels are regulated by redox potentials. Front Physiol 5: 80

2014    Reyes EPCerpa VCorvalán LRetamal MA. Cxs and Panx- hemichannels in peripheral and central chemosensing in mammals. Front Cell Neurosci 8: 123

2014    Retamal MA, Alcayaga J, Bultynck G, Leybaert L, Sáez PJ, Fernández , León LE, Sáez JC. Opening of pannexin and connexin based-channels increases the excitability of nodose ganglion sensory neurons. Front Cell Neurosci 8: 158

2014    Figueroa VARetamal MA, Cea LA, Salas JD, Vargas AA, Verdugo CA, Jara O, Martinez AD, Sáez JC. Extracellular gentamicin reduces the activity of connexin hemichannels and interferes with purinergic Ca2+ signaling in HeLa cells. Front Cell Neurosci 8: 265

2014    Retamal MA, Sáez JC. Hemichannels; from the molecule to the function. Front Physiol 5: 411.

2014    León-Paravic CGFigueroa V, Guzmán DJ, Valderrama CF, Vallejos AA, Fiori MC, Altenberg GA, Reuss L, Retamal MA. Carbon Monoxide (CO) a novel inhibitor of connexin hemichannels. J Biol Chem 289: 36150-36157

2014    Retamal MAReyes EP, Alcayaga J. Petrosal ganglion: a more complex role than originally imagined. Front Physiol 5: 474

2014    Fernández R, Nardocci G, Navarro C, Reyes EP, Acuña-Castillo C, Cortés PP. Neural reflex regulation of systemic inflammation: potential new targets for sepsis therapy. Front Physiol 5: 489

2013    Figueroa V, Sáez PJ, Salas JD, Salas D, Jara O, Martínez AD, Sáez JC, Retamal MA. Linoleic acid induces opening of connexin26 hemichannels through a PI3K/Akt/Ca2+-dependent pathway. Biochem Biophys Acta 1828: 1169–1179

2013    Sáez PJ, Shoji KF, Retamal MA, Harcha PA, Ramírez G, Jiang JX, von Bernhardi R, Saez JC. ATP is required and advances cytokine-induced gap junction formation in microglia in vitro. Mediators Inflamm 2013: 216402. 16 pages. doi: 10.1155/2013/216402

2013    Iyyathurai J, D’hondt C, Wang N, De Bock M, Himpens B, Retamal MA, Stehberg J, Leybaert L, Bultynck G. Peptides and peptide-derived molecules targeting the intracellular domains of Cx43: gap junctions versus hemichannels. Neuropharmacology 75: 491-505

2013    Orellana JA, Martinez AD, Retamal MA. Gap junction channels and hemichannels in the CNS: Regulation by signaling molecules. Neuropharmacology 75: 567-582

2013    Giaume C, Froger N, Orellana JA, Retamal MA, Sáez JC. Impact of microglial activation on astroglial connexin expression and function in brain inflammation. Chapter 11 in: E Oviedo-Orta, BR Kwak, WH Evans, eds: «Connexin Cell Communication Channels. Roles in the Immune System and Immunopathology«, pp 219-232. CRC Press: Taylor and Francis group. ISBN: 978-1-4398-6257-5

2012    Vielma AH, Retamal MA, Schmachtenberg O. Nitric oxide signaling in the retina: What have we learned in two decades? Brain Res 1430: 112-125

2012    Stehberg J, Moraga-Amaro R, Salazar C, Becerra A, Echeverría C, Orellana JA, Bultynck G, Ponsaerts R, Leybaert L, Simon F, Sáez JC, Retamal MA. Release of gliotransmitters through astroglial connexin 43 hemichannels is necessary for fear memory consolidation in the basolateral amygdala. FASEB J 26: 3649-3657

2012    Bravo I, Michea L. Análisis de la evidencia experimental que muestra efectos nocivos de la sal y su relación con la hipertensión arterialMedwave 12 (2): e5303. available online. doi: 10.5867/medwave.2012.02.5303

2012    Zapata PLarraín CReyes EP, Fernández R. Shifting from hypoxia to hyperoxia to assess the peripheral chemosensory drive of ventilation. Adv Exp Med Biol 758: 137-142

2012    Reyes EP, Abarzua M, Martin A, Rodríguez J, Cortés PP, Fernández R.  LPS-induced    c-Fos activation in NTS neurons and plasmatic cortisol increases in septic rats are suppressed by bilateral carotid chemodenervation. Adv Exp Med Biol 758: 185-190

2011    Retamal MA, Evangelista-Martínez F, León-Paravic CG, Altenberg GA, Reuss L. Biphasic effect of linoleic acid on connexin 46 hemichannels. Pflügers Arch – Eur J Physiol 461: 635–643.

2011    Retamal MALeón-Paravic CG, Verdugo CA, Alcaíno CA, Moraga-Amaro R, Stehberg J. Connexin in lens physiology and cataract formation. J Clin Exp Ophthalmol, sp issue 1, 13 pp, available online. doi:10.4172/2155-9570.S1-001

2011    Brown ST, Reyes EP, Nurse CA. Chronic hypoxia upregulates adenosine 2a receptor expression in chromaffin cells via hypoxia inducible factor-2a: Role in modulating secretion. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 412: 466–472

2011    Zapata PLarraín CReyes P, Fernández R. Immunosensory signaling by carotid body chemoreceptors. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 178: 370-374

2010    Retamal MA, Yin S, Altenberg GA, Reuss L. Voltage-dependent facilitation of Cx46 hemichannels. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 298: C132-139

2010    Ponsaerts R, De Vuyst E, Retamal M, D’hondt C, Vermeire D, Wang N, De Smedt H, Zimmermann P, Himpens B, Vereecke J, Leybaert L, Bultynck G. Intramolecular loop/tail interactions are essential for connexin 43-hemichannel activity. FASEB J 24: 4378-4395.

2010    Sáez JC, Schalper KA, Retamal MA, Orellana JA, Shoji KF, Bennett MV. Cell membrane permeabilization via connexin hemichannels in living and dying cells. Exp Cell Res 316: 2377-2389.

2009    Fitzgerald RS, Eyzaguirre CZapata P. Fifty years of progress in carotid body physiology. Adv Exp Med Biol 648: 23-34

2009    Zapata PLarraín C, Rivera MA, Calderón C. Cardio-vascular responses to hyperoxic withdrawal of arterial chemosensory drive. Adv Exp Med Biol 648: 305-314

2009    Retamal MA, Yin S, Altenberg GA, Reuss L. Modulation of Cx46 hemichannels by nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 296: C1356-1363.

2008    Fernández R, González S, Rey S, Cortés PP, Maisey KR, Reyes EPLarraín CZapata P. Lipopolysaccharide-induced carotid body inflammation in cats: Functional manifestations, histopathology and involvement of tumour necrosis factor-a. Exp Physiol 93: 892-907

2007    Reyes EP, Fernández R, Larraín CZapata P. Effects of combined cholinergic-purinergic block upon cat carotid body chemoreceptors in vitroRespir Physiol Neurobiol 156: 17-22

2007    Reyes EP, Fernández R, Larraín CZapata P. Carotid body chemosensory activity and ventilatory chemoreflexes in cats persist after combined cholinergic–purinergic block. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 156: 23-32

2007    Zapata P. Is ATP a suitable co-transmitter in carotid body arterial chemoreceptors? Respir Physiol Neurobiol 157: 106-115

2007    Eyzaguirre C. Electric synapses in the carotid body-nerve complex. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 157: 116-122

2006    Reyes EP, Alcayaga J, Zapata P. Are there interactions between acetylcholine- and ATP-induced responses at the level of a visceral sensory ganglion? Brain Res 1107: 97-103

2005    Zapata PLarraín C. How the carotid body works: Different strategies and preparations to solve different problems. Biol Res 38: 315-328


“Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a novel inhibitor of connexin hemichannels”. Mauricio Retamal.

Connexin and Pannexin hemichannels are regulated by redox potential. Mauricio Retamal.

Cxs and Panx- hemichannels in peripheral and central chemosensing in mammals. Edison Pablo Reyes, Verónica Cerpa, Liliana Corvalán y Mauricio Antonio Retamal.